Am sure it will be a biblical based explanation and after that tell us one modern day prophet who qualifies.
They are Profits not Prophets.
I once went to a church were a prophet prophisied something like this:
''In here today is a woman with the phone 077972.....''
To what end? The woman whom they must have appraised prior to prophesying became hysterical. Hanzi holy spirit hazivi number yangu when we had had signed enrolment forms.
How do I define prophet? I could define based on the Bible or by real life experience and still end up saying the same thing - because I have taken the trouble to compare.
A prophet is a servant of God - who is sent by heaven to speak. (Amos 3:7). A prophet is ordained by the Spirit of God (or Holy Spirit).
Through the Holy Spirit some or ordained to be pastors, prophets, teachers, evangelists (Ephesians 4:10-11).
A prophet may be a man or a woman. They could be young or old persons - they need not be ordained at a particular age. Holy Spirit ordination usually entails confirmation by other prophets.
The prophet I am talking about is not your "profit". They serve for free.
Likewise, a pastor is also ordained by the Holy Spirit and must serve for free. I know majority of those you call pastors do not fit this definition but that is not my fault.
I serve as a pastor in a Prophetic Church. It is called "Gospel of God Church" and it was founded in Zimbabwe (I have never been there - am in Kenya) by someone you may have heard of, who popularly went by the name "Johane Masowe".
A prophet is not a Church leader in the real sense. So the Bible does not contradict itself when it says that a woman should not have authority over men...
A prophet is not a pastor. Though some people have several gifts - and may be pastors as well as prophets as well as teachers - example is Paul in the Bible.
I have been a pastor for years and that was also foretold - when it did not look real. My parent who was so told thought it was a confusion with my brother. I serve knowing that any day now I may also be ordained as a prophet - and if so, it need not mean that I shall be paid for my work - in fact, like many, I spend in God's service - earning from elsewhere.
It was not my intention to talk about self, but it might help me explain myself more clearly.
A more correct definition, the one I need to know when serving in Church, is that correctly speaking, a prophet is not even a person. I hope am not confusing. A prophet is an angel - of a particular type. Angels like us are different. Some are in the army (Rev 19:10..) or like Michael, some are doctors like Raphael (in your Bible if you are Catholic). Some would be like intelligence personnel. Those are the ones who work with prophets. The army ones are the ones who work with teachers etc.
When you read 1 Corinthians 14:32, you read about the "spirits of the prophets". Those are angels. An angel is a spirit (Hebrews 1:14).
Therefore, the person prophet is a human being like any other. He/she can get into a dispute with his/her angel. And at worst an evil angel (or spirit) can take over - like happened with King Saul, after he was ordained by Samuel.
So when we call a person a prophet, it is not to say that they are perfect! They never were. Even those in the Bible had mistakes - some of which you are read. And remember not everything about them is written. What we pay attention to is the angel - empowered by the Holy Spirit.
You will see evidence of the angels when you read testimonies of Ezekiel or Daniel or John in Revelations. It is usually one particular angel.
There are also fallen angels who can come an work in churches as well. They can foretell and such like thing and to be honest the rank-and-file Bible reader can easily be misled.
Prophets mainly get visions and explain them. They can also translate dreams for instance - even without being told - just like Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar.
I do not know if you still want me to say more about prophets - but if there is anything you wish me to clarify, you are free to ask. I am trying to be brief.